|Delaware, New Jersey||Shipfitter|
|Pacific||Antitank Company, 382nd Infantry Regiment, 96th Infantry Division|
|Bronze Star, Purple Heart, Combat Infantryman Badge||Battle of Leyte|
Early Life & Family
John Alexander Mlynarczyk was born in Wilmington, Delaware, on June 4, 1919. He was the son of Jan (John) Mlynarczyk (c. 1874–1953) and Weronika (Veronica) Mlynarczyk (née Blaszczynska or Blazyowska, c. 1888–1938). His parents were Polish immigrants who married soon after Weronika’s arrival in the United States.
Mlynarczyk had three older brothers, four older sisters, and two younger brothers. The Mlynarczyk family was recorded on the census on January 3, 1920, living at 822 Anchorage Street in Wilmington. Mlynarczyk’s father was working as a laborer at a leather works. On May 23, 1923, Mlynarczyk’s parents bought a home at 605 South Harrison Street, a few blocks from their previous residence.
In a journal of his early military service, Mlynarczyk listed his hobbies as fishing and swimming, and his favorite sports as baseball and basketball.
Mlynarczyk’s enlistment data card stated he had completed one year of high school, while the 1940 census indicated that he completed two years of high school. The Morning Post reported that “he was a graduate of St. [Hedwig]’s Parochial school and attended Wilmington High school where he played a forward position on the basket ball team.”
Mlynarczyk’s occupation was listed as clerk in a 1938 Wilmington directory. According to a 1981 oral history interview with his widow, that year Mlynarczyk relocated to Camden, New Jersey, in search of work. He moved in with his sister and brother-in-law, Stella and Andy Bartoszek. There he met his future wife, Jennie C. Bonk (1921–2017). They continued their relationship even after Mlynarczyk moved back to Wilmington.
Tragedy struck the family on January 16, 1940, when Mlynarczyk’s older brother, Wladislaw (William, 1908–1940), succumbed to tuberculosis, aged 31. Several months later, John A. Mlynarczyk was recorded on the census on April 16, 1940, living with his family at 605 South Harrison Street. His occupation was listed as salesman at a department store, but the census indicated he had been unemployed for the 12 weeks ending on March 30, 1940. By the time he registered for the draft on October 16, 1940, Mlynarczyk was working for Pusey & Jones Corporation, one of several shipyards in Wilmington. His occupation was listed as shipfitter in his wife’s statement to the State of Delaware Public Archives Commission. The registrar described him as standing five feet, five inches tall and weighing 136 lbs., with brown hair and hazel eyes.
Mlynarczyk married Jennie Bonk at St. Joseph’s Roman Catholic Church in Camden, New Jersey, on the afternoon of May 24, 1941. Jennie Mlynarczyk recalled in 1981 that they initially made their home on 3rd Street in Wilmington. The couple had moved to 131 6th Avenue in Wilmington by February 4, 1942, when their only child, John Andrew Mlynarczyk (1942–2016), was born.
Two of Mlynarczyk’s brothers also served during World War II: Edward J. Mlynarczyk (1921–1987) in the U.S. Army and Eugene J. Mlynarczyk (1923–1984) in the U.S. Navy.
Despite working in a war industry, Mlynarczyk was eventually drafted. An induction order dated December 4, 1942, directed him to report to the corner of 8th and Wollaston Streets at 6:00 a.m. on December 18, 1942. His enlistment data card stated that he was inducted into the U.S. Army in Camden, New Jersey, that same day.
In a journal of his early military service, Mlynarczyk recorded that he went on active duty at Fort Dix, New Jersey, on December 26, 1942. He recalled:
All us selectees arrived just before noon at Ft. Dix, N.J. Thats when everything started. In just about four hours we were transformed from civilians to the greenest rookies in the army. It all happened so fast that I didn’t know whether I was coming or going.
The first thing the Army taught me was to hurry and then wait. The second thing was ; how to make my bunk the Army way.
Mlynarczyk wrote that on January 12, 1943, he and some other recruits boarded a train. They were not told their destination and they spent four nights in their coaches before arriving at Fort McClellan, Alabama, on January 16, 1943. He attended six weeks of basic training at the Infantry Replacement Training Center there. Mlynarczyk wrote:
The training was rugged and never in my mind did I think I could stand such hard ships.
When the day came that we finished our basic I felt like a new man. Also proud. […] The thing that bothers me the most being in the Army is; Being so far away from my wife and our baby.
The next thing is — doing K.P. [kitchen police]
After completing basic training, Mlynarczyk and his comrades again boarded a train. Mlynarczyk wrote:
We had Pullman berths for this trip and it was just like a vacation. Wherever we were to end our trip didn’t bother me. For I was only interested in looking out the window most of the time. Because I was interested in the scenery and actually seeing part of the United States that I always dreamed of seeing.
Early on the morning of March 1, 1943, the train arrived at Camp Adair, Oregon. Private Mlynarczyk was assigned to Antitank Company, 382nd Infantry Regiment, 96th Infantry Division. Both his regiment and division had been activated at Camp Adair on August 15, 1942, and would spend nearly two years training at various installations on the West Coast. Mlynarczyk’s grandson, Alex Mlynarczyk, recalled being told that his grandfather “told Jennie that he enjoyed the living in the Pacific Northwest, and he suggested that they relocate there after the war.”
Although Mlynarczyk did not record further narrative in his journal, he did note his movements and promotions. He wrote that he moved to Fort Lewis, Washington, on May 1, 1943, where he was promoted to private 1st class on May 12, 1943. He then moved to Bend, Oregon, on July 8, 1943, before returning to Camp Adair on August 10, 1943. He went back to Bend on September 20, 1943. He was promoted to corporal on September 27, 1943.
Corporal Mlynarczyk was a gunner in an antitank gun crew. Although he trained on the 57 mm antitank gun, his unit went into combat with the older and lighter 37 mm antitank gun. Although the 37 mm gun had largely been replaced in the European Theater by 57 mm antitank gun by the fall of 1944, the 37 mm gun remained in widespread use in the Pacific. Japanese tanks were both weaker and less common than German armored vehicles. The 37 mm gun was also far lighter, making it easier to move in difficult terrain. Finally, whereas armor piercing ammunition was essentially all that was available for the 57 mm gun at that time, the 37 mm gun was equipped with high explosive and cannister ammunition, making it useful against enemy fortifications, light vehicles, and infantry, not just tanks.
On November 20, 1943, Mlynarczyk moved to Camp White, Oregon. His company was involved in a rescue attempt following a training accident there. In a letter of commendation dated April 19, 1944, the regimental commander, Colonel Macey L. Dill, wrote:
The Antitank Company, 382d Infantry, is cited for outstanding performance of duty in an emergency. On 1 April 1944, during target practice, a tank which was being used for training purposes overturned and caught fire, trapping four occupants inside. The men of this company, with unhesitating cooperation and devotion to duty did, without regard to their own personal safety, attempt to extinguish the fire. With few tools available, these men used helmets, sacks, and bare hands to throw sand and water on the flaming tank.
Colonel Dill added that several men had been nominated for the Soldier’s Medal, explaining:
Although four members of the company lost their lives in this regrettable accident, it was through no fault or neglect of duty by any member of the company that rescue could not be effected. The regiment as a whole takes a just pride in duty thus performed.
On April 24, 1944, Corporal Mlynarczyk departed Camp White, arriving three days later at Camp San Luis Obispo, California. His regiment departed for Camp Callan, California, on May 31, 1944, arriving on June 1, 1944. Around that time, Mlynarczyk went on his last furlough before going overseas and was able to spend his 25th birthday visiting his family. He returned to San Luis Obispo on June 19, 1944, before leaving for Camp Beale, California, on June 26, 1944.
382nd Infantry Regiment records state that on July 18, 1944, the unit moved from Camp Beale to Camp Stoneman, California, by rail. Shelby Stanton wrote in his summary of the unit’s movements in his book, World War II Order of Battle, that the regiment shipped out from San Francisco on July 23, 1944, arriving in Hawaii five days later. The regiment shipped out again for the western Pacific on September 15, 1944, stopping at Eniwetok and then Manus. The 96th Infantry Division was assigned to the XXIV Corps of the U.S. Sixth Army.
Jennie Mlynarczyk recalled during an oral history interview in 1981:
John always said to me, like when we were going together and when we were first married, “I know I’m never going to see 30 years old.” […] Right before he was killed I got this letter and he said about how much he loved me and how much he loved the baby and all, and he said I want you to promise me – he said I found out in this man’s Army that an education is very important. I want you to promise me that if I don’t come back you’ll see that our son gets a good education…
Combat on Leyte
When the Pacific War broke out, the Commonwealth of the Philippines had been under American administration with full independence scheduled for 1946. The fall of the Philippines to the Japanese in 1942 was arguably the greatest military disaster in American history. During the two years that followed, Allied forces first halted and then began to reverse the Japanese gains in the Pacific. Hard-fought campaigns in both the southwest and central Pacific brought the Philippines back into striking distance by the autumn of 1944. Debate ensued at the highest levels of the U.S. armed forces and government about whether to retake the Philippines or bypass it in favor invading Formosa (Taiwan).
General Douglas MacArthur, who had pledged to return when he retreated from the Philippines two years earlier, argued forcefully for the opportunity to keep his promise. Both approaches had the potential to sever Japanese lines of supply and communication to resource-rich southeast Asia. Invading Formosa presented complex logistical issues and would have largely restricted air support to carrier-based aircraft. The decision also involved political dimensions, not strictly military ones. Bypassing the Philippines would potentially spare many Filipino lives in the fighting certain to follow an invasion. At the same time, planners considered it unacceptable to leave the Filipinos and Allied prisoners of war under a cruel Japanese occupation for what could be years to come.
With the Philippines selected, American planners decided to gain a foothold in the southern or central Philippines before moving on the principal island of Luzon. Initial plans focused on Mindanao but shifted to Leyte after intelligence reports suggested the smaller island was lightly defended.
American Rangers began taking some outlying islands on October 17, 1944. The following day, U.S. Navy Underwater Demolition Teams began scouting Leyte’s beaches. The main landings on Leyte, designated A-Day, were scheduled for October 20, 1944, with H-Hour (dubbed J-Hour) at 1000.
According to the regimental operations plan, Antitank Company would be split for the landings, with a gun platoon and a minelaying squad assigned to each of the 382nd’s three battalions. Morning reports indicate that Corporal Mlynarczyk was assigned to 1st Platoon, which was attached to 1st Battalion for the landings.
The 382nd Infantry landed north of Dulag at the Blue Beaches. 3rd Battalion and attached units landed at Beach Blue-1 while 2nd Battalion landed at Beach Blue-2. The regimental reserve, 1st Battalion, landed one hour into the invasion at Beach Blue-1. Casualties on the beach were light since the Japanese marshalled their forces inland to blunt American superiority in armor and naval firepower.
It was already hot and humid by J-Hour. In his book, Leyte 1944: The Soldiers’ Battle, Nathan N. Prefer wrote of the 382nd Infantry’s landing:
Slowed only by enemy obstacles on the beach, the regiment moved steadily inland to a distance of 700 yards by midday. As it crossed Highway 1 it encountered the first enemy opposition by elements of the 9th Infantry Regiment, which defended a series of trenches paralleling the beach. Having moved inland about 2,500 yards the regiment settled down for the first night ashore on Leyte.
In the meantime, the Imperial Japanese Navy sortied in response to the invasion. The climactic Battle of Leyte Gulf (October 23–26, 1944) largely overshadowed the land battle in popular memory. The U.S. Navy inflicted heavy casualties on the Japanese fleet and prevented their interference with the invasion. Even with the decisive American victory at sea, the land battle on Leyte continued for months afterward. Despite American air and sea power, the Japanese were able to move reinforcements to Leyte from other islands in the Philippines.
The Japanese did not deploy many tanks to Leyte, and much of the terrain inland was unsuitable for either side to employ tanks. For that reason, American antitank guns were primarily used for other purposes during the battle, such as knocking out enemy bunkers. However, their most important role was defending American positions using their cannister rounds, which essentially turned the 37 mm antitank gun into a large shotgun to repulse close-quarters night assaults by Japanese infantry.
Progress was difficult on Leyte. The 382nd Infantry’s after action report explained:
As the regiment advanced further inland it was apparent that the whole sector was composed of swamps. It was discovered that what reports described as roads were only muddy trails and were impassable for wheeled vehicles. M-29 Cargo Carriers and LVTs were pressed into service hauling supplies but the numerous streams and waist deep swamps soon halted all vehicle traffic. The task of supply and evacuation of wounded soon assumed gigantic proportions. For days the rapidly advancing troops went with little food as the priority was given to the much needed ammunition. Native and soldier carrying details assisted by carabao were the only means of supplying the front lines.
The regimental after action report spoke favorably 37 mm antitank gun’s utility in defending perimeters, but added that with challenging terrain, “The task of keeping this weapon on the front lines was always difficult and sometimes impossible.”
During their advance, the 382nd Infantry overcame enemy pillboxes, hunted snipers, fought off counterattacks by small groups of Japanese infantry, and endured regular—if largely ineffective—artillery and mortar bombardments. In contrast to battles on smaller islands, the Japanese generally attempted to conserve their strength with delaying actions. The 382nd Infantry after action report suggested that the enemy was less organized and less aggressive than in previous campaigns.
Beginning on the afternoon of October 26, 1944, the 382nd Infantry launched an assault on “the strongly fortified town of Tabontabon which sat astride the main route of advance.” That night, the Japanese consolidated their positions at the north end of town, where they were able to hold out for just over a day before they were finally overrun by 2nd Battalion on the morning of October 28, 1944. 2nd Battalion then went into reserve while 1st and 3rd Battalions continued the advance northwest toward Digahongan, destroying enemy pillboxes defending the road. The daily regimental report stated:
Our forces pursued the enemy so closely that he did not have the opportunity to defend in prepared positions at DIGAHONGAN. Throughout the remainder of the day, however, mines and booby traps were encountered, and numerous snipers continued to [harass] our troops.
After reaching Digahongan in mid-afternoon, 3rd Battalion dug in there, while 1st Battalion advanced east on the road to Kiling before stopping to form a perimeter for the night. 3rd Battalion repulsed a Japanese counterattack that evening. That night, 1st Battalion also “received several drunken Banzai attacks by small groups of” Japanese.
Corporal Mlynarczyk was posthumously awarded the Bronze Star Medal for his actions during the last night of his life, October 28, 1944. The citation (included in General Orders No. 9, Headquarters 96th Infantry Division, dated January 9, 1945) stated in part:
For heroic service in connection with military operations against the enemy on Leyte on October 28, 1944. When Japanese armed with machine guns and grenades made a night attack on his sector of the battalion defense perimeter, Corporal Mlynarczyk, gunner of anti-tank squad, left the cover of his position in a courageous attempt to resupply his gun with ammunition. He was immediately struck by a grenade but bravely continued on. Corporal Mlynarczyk died before he could reach his goal, but his unflinching devotion to duty set a heroic and lasting example for his fellow soldiers.
In a letter dated March 20, 1945, a member of Corporal Mlynarczyk’s antitank gun crew, Private 1st Class John B. Moore, Jr. (1922–1992), wrote to Jennie Mlynarczyk with a similar account:
It happened on the night of Oct. 28th. Soon after we had put our gun into position, the Japs staged a banzai attack. When our supply of ammunition was low, we had to go for more. It was during one of these trips that Johnny was shot in the stomach. It all happened very sudden & I am sure that Johnny did not suffer very much. I hope that you realize that it was no fault of us (his buddies) that this occurred. We all thought a lot of him and we are all very sorry that it had to happen. You have our deepest sympathies.
The Antitank Company morning report for October 28, 1944, stated that Corporal Mlynarczyk was killed in action one mile west of Kiling at 2300 hours, indicating that he was a member of 1st Platoon, which was attached to 1st Battalion. The following day’s morning report added a few more details of the action, stating that 1st Platoon “withstood a banzai attack” and killed approximately 18 Japanese soldiers with canister fire.
In a letter to Corporal Mlynarczyk’s wife and son dated November 20, 1944, Private 1st Class John Moore, Private 1st Class Delaural Morgan, and Private 1st Class Arthur Tobergte wrote: “We had the priviledge [sic] of working for Johnny and grew to admire and respect him and his decisions. On the fatal night he displayed great courage and a willingness to do his duty regardless of the immediate danger.”
The sad news reached Corporal Mlynarczyk’s wife and son in Camden, where they had been living with Jennie Mlynarczyk’s parents since his entry into the service. A War Department telegram dated November 21, 1944, reported Corporal Mlynarczyk’s death to his wife, following by a letter confirming the death on November 23, 1944.
Corporal Mlynarczyk was initially buried in a temporary cemetery at Tabontabon. On January 16, 1945, his body was reburied at the U.S. Armed Forced Cemetery Dulag No. 1. Later that year, on June 11, 1945, he was reburied at U.S. Armed Forces Cemetery Leyte No. 1, near Palo. In 1947, his wife was offered the option of either repatriating his body to the United States or having his body remain in a permanent military cemetery abroad. She requested the latter, and Corporal Mlynarczyk was reburied at the cemetery at Fort William McKinley (Plot B, Row 12, Grave 116), now known as the Manila American Cemetery.
Corporal Mlynarczyk’s awards include the Bronze Star Medal, the Expert Infantryman Badge, the Combat Infantryman Badge (which by postwar policy added an oak leaf cluster to his Bronze Star), the Purple Heart, the Good Conduct Medal, the Philippine Liberation Medal, the American Campaign Medal, and the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal.
Veronica Mlynarczyk’s year of birth is unknown. The 1910 census placed her year of birth as around 1885, while the 1920 and 1930 censuses indicated she was born around 1888.
Date of Birth
Curiously, Mlynarczyk’s draft card listed his date of birth as June 3, 1919. His journal and military paperwork gave his date of birth as June 4, 1919, as did his wife’s 1981 interview.
Military Occupational Specialty
The company morning report announcing Corporal Mlynarczyk’s death on October 28, 1944, stated that his duty was 605. In World War II, a U.S. Army Military Occupational Specialty (M.O.S.) was a three- or four-digit number. However, the same number could correspond to multiple titles. For example, the main title for 610 was antitank gun crewman. However, depending on the type of unit, 610 could refer to cannoneer, tank destroyer crewman, antitank gunner, or several other titles.
When the War Department issued Training Manual 12-427 (Military Occupational Classification of Enlisted Personnel) on July 12, 1944, 605 was listed as heavy machine gunner, with alternate titles of ammunition bearer, antiaircraft machine gunner, and machine gun N.C.O. (noncommissioned officer).
Of course, abundant documentation establishes that Mlynarczyk was an antitank gunner, and antitank companies had very few machine guns. He was in the process of retrieving ammunition when he was killed, but there is little reason to believe that Corporal Mlynarczyk would have the formal duty of ammunition bearer, typically held by a private or private 1st class. There were no 605s listed in the most up-to-date table of organization for an antitank company as of fall 1944. However, Antitank Company in the 382nd Infantry may have been organized under an earlier table of organization, probably because they were still equipped with 37 mm rather than 57 mm antitank gun.
The photo at the top of this page was digitally enhanced using tools on the genealogy website MyHeritage. This software is useful in instances like this where the original print is faded and not sharp. I believe this to be an accurate reconstruction, but the software could potentially introduce errors by misinterpreting fuzzy details in the original photograph. A comparison of the original and enhanced versions of the photos can be viewed below.
Special thanks to Corporal Mlynarczyk’s grandson, Alex Mlynarczyk, for contributing photos, documents, and information that was invaluable in telling this story.
“7 From Area Listed Killed In Battle Line.” The Morning Post, December 5, 1944. Pg. 1 and 2. https://www.newspapers.com/clip/93814946/obituary-for-john-a-mlynarczyk/
“Action Against Enemy Report 382 Infantry 96th Infantry Division Leyte Island P. I. 20th October to 25th December 1944.” World War II Operations Reports, 1940–1948. Record Group 407, Records of the Adjutant General’s Office, 1905–1981. National Archives at College Park, Maryland.
Chun, Clayton. Leyte 1944: Return to the Philippines. Osprey Publishing, 2015.
Delaware Death Records. Bureau of Vital Statistics, Hall of Records, Dover, Delaware. https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-CSMP-T34J-6
Delaware Land Records, 1677–1947. Record Group 2555-000-011, Recorder of Deeds, New Castle County. Delaware Public Archives, Dover, Delaware. https://www.ancestry.com/imageviewer/collections/61025/images/31303_256979-00193
General Orders No. 9, Headquarters 96th Infantry Division, January 9, 1945. World War II Operations Reports, 1940–1948. Record Group 407, Records of the Adjutant General’s Office, 1905–1981. National Archives at College Park, Maryland.
Headstone Inscription and Interment Records for U.S. Military Cemeteries on Foreign Soil, 1942–1949. Record Group 117, Records of the American Battle Monuments Commission, 1918–c. 1995. National Archives at Washington, D.C. https://www.ancestry.com/imageviewer/collections/9170/images/42861_647350_0542-01436
“Historical Report.” Headquarters 382nd Infantry, 1944. World War II Operations Reports, 1940–1948. Record Group 407, Records of the Adjutant General’s Office, 1905–1981. National Archives at College Park, Maryland.
“John A. Mlynarczyk.” Courier-Post, May 11, 2016. Pg. 14A. https://www.newspapers.com/clip/94125584/john-andrew-mlynarczyk-obit/
Larkin, T. B. Letter to Jennie Mlynarczyk, September 10, 1946. Courtesy of Alex Mlynarczyk.
“Military Occupational Classification of Enlisted Personnel.” War Department Technical Manuel 12-427, July 12, 1944.
Mlynarczyk, Alex. Email correspondence on February 18, 2022.
Mlynarczyk, Jennie. John Alexander Mlynarczyk Individual Military Service Record, October 2, 1945. Record Group 1325-003-053, Record of Delawareans Who Died in World War II. Delaware Public Archives, Dover, Delaware. https://cdm16397.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/p15323coll6/id/20029/rec/12
Mlynarczyk, Jennie. Oral history interview transcript, 1981. Courtesy of Alex Mlynarczyk.
Mlynarczyk, John A. “Life in the Service.” Unpublished journal, c. 1943. Courtesy of Alex Mlynarczyk.
Moore, John, Delaural Morgan, and Arthur Tobergte. Letter to Jennie and John Mlynarczyk, November 20, 1944. Courtesy of Alex Mlynarczyk.
Morning reports for Antitank Company, 382nd Infantry Regiment. October 1944. National Personnel Records Center, St. Louis, Missouri. Courtesy of Alex Mlynarczyk.
Prefer, Nathan N. Leyte 1944: The Soldiers’ Battle. Casemate Publishers, 2012.
Polk’s Wilmington (New Castle County, Del.) City Directory 1938. R. L. Polk & Company Publishers, 1938. https://www.ancestry.com/discoveryui-content/view/1047800878:2469
Stanton, Shelby L. World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division 1939–1946. Revised ed. Stackpole Books, 2006.
“Table of Organization and Equipment No. 7-19: Infantry Antitank Company, 57-mm Gun.” War Department, February 26, 1944. Military Research Service website. http://www.militaryresearch.org/7-19%2026Feb44.pdf
United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Fourteenth Census of the United States, 1920. National Archives at Washington, D.C. https://www.ancestry.com/imageviewer/collections/6061/images/4295770-00992, https://www.ancestry.com/imageviewer/collections/6061/images/4295770-00993
United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census of the United States, 1930. National Archives at Washington, D.C. https://www.ancestry.com/imageviewer/collections/6224/images/4531892_00370, https://www.ancestry.com/imageviewer/collections/6224/images/4531892_00371
United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940. National Archives at Washington, D.C. https://www.ancestry.com/imageviewer/collections/2442/images/m-t0627-00552-00273
“Unit Report No. 9 From 271800 To 281800.” Headquarters 382nd Regimental Combat Team, October 28, 1944. World War II Operations Reports, 1940–1948. Record Group 407, Records of the Adjutant General’s Office, 1905–1981. National Archives at College Park, Maryland.
World War I Selective Service System Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918. National Archives at Washington, D.C. https://www.ancestry.com/imageviewer/collections/6482/images/005207040_05137
World War II Army Enlistment Records. Record Group 64, Records of the National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives at College Park, Maryland. https://aad.archives.gov/aad/record-detail.jsp?dt=893&mtch=1&tf=F&q=32484856&bc=&rpp=10&pg=1&rid=3096228
WWII Draft Registration Cards for Delaware, 10/16/1940–3/31/1947. Record Group 147, Records of the Selective Service System. National Archives at St. Louis, Missouri. https://www.ancestry.com/imageviewer/collections/2238/images/44003_01_00004-01260
Zaloga, Steven J. US Anti-tank Artillery 1941–45. Osprey Publishing, 2005.
Last updated on July 22, 2022
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